NASA Discovers Mysterious X-Shaped Structures in Earth’s upper atmosphere


NASA’s GOLD mission has made a surprising discovery in the ionosphere, a crucial layer of Earth’s atmosphere.

This layer, filled with electrified gas, is essential for long-distance radio communication.

GOLD, a geostationary satellite launched in October 2018, has been observing this layer, revealing unexpected X- and C-shaped structures.

What is the Ionosphere?

The ionosphere forms when solar radiation hits Earth’s atmosphere, creating a region filled with electrically charged particles.

During the day, the ionosphere becomes denser as sunlight breaks electrons off atoms and molecules, creating plasma.

At night, the density decreases.

This plasma is key for radio signal transmission over long distances.

(Image credit: NASA’s Scientific Visualization Studio)

The GOLD Mission’s Role

GOLD, which stands for Global-scale Observations of the Limb and Disk, studies the ionosphere’s densities and temperatures from its position above the western hemisphere.

Recently, GOLD focused on two dense crests of particles near the equator.

At night, low-density bubbles appear in these crests, potentially disrupting radio and GPS signals.

Unexpected X and C Shapes

In a recent study, GOLD found familiar X-shaped structures in the ionosphere, which typically form during solar storms or volcanic eruptions.

However, these shapes appeared without any such disturbances.

This observation puzzled scientists, including Fazlul Laskar from the University of Colorado, who noted that previous reports of these shapes only occurred during geomagnetic disturbances.

Additionally, GOLD observed C-shaped and reverse-C-shaped bubbles unusually close together.

These shapes are usually influenced by wind direction, but finding them just 400 miles apart suggests an unexpected change in wind patterns over short distances.

Implications and Future Research

This discovery indicates that the lower atmosphere might affect the ionosphere more than previously thought, even without extreme solar or volcanic activity.

Understanding these disturbances is crucial, as they can disrupt communication signals significantly.

To further investigate, NASA’s Atmospheric Perturbations Around The Eclipse Path (APEP) project aims to study how solar eclipses affect the ionosphere.

In October 2023 and April 2024, NASA launched rockets to measure changes during solar eclipses across the U.S.

The results are eagerly awaited.


NASA’s GOLD mission continues to uncover fascinating aspects of the ionosphere, revealing how much we still have to learn about this vital atmospheric layer.

The unexpected X and C shapes challenge our current understanding and highlight the need for further research to ensure reliable communication systems.